Re: Fw: Your housing units

emily cragg (mecragg@erols.com)
Mon, 6 Dec 1999 15:11:24 -0800


-----Original Message-----
From: unclescam <unclescam@buskers.org>
To: emily cragg <mecragg@erols.com>; HPN <hpn@aspin.asu.edu>; \ Rainbow
Family list" <gathering@cygnus.com>, et in dc <prop1@prop1.org>, Courtney
Miller <courtney@ecobuild.com> <\ Rainbow Family list"
<gathering@cygnus.com>, et in dc <prop1@prop1.org>, Courtney Miller
<courtney@ecobuild.com>>
Date: Monday, December 06, 1999 11:31 AM
Subject: Re: Fw: Your housing units


>let's face it, big government is not responsible for our failures. We the
>people, are responsible for our governments being. we are responsible for
the
>failure of our government to meet the needs of  those irresponsible to
their
>own needs. this road is history.
... You are precisely where I have come to be.
>
>emily cragg wrote:
>
>> RE:  >> >> > > Let's face it- big government has failed miserably and
most
>> major  >> >> > > corporations have only one social agenda-
>corporations have no social agenda. profit margin is the only "corporate"
>function. people have social agendas.

... Yes. And there is nobody to house the people, except ourselves, because
"business" just wants to make a buck off the people who already have bucks.
>>
>> Yes, it IS millions of people who are in a housing crisis--not thousands
>we were speaking  to one particular remedy for a finite population. go to
Rio
>and see your small structure system in practice with millions.

.... This is what I sensed--that SOMEBODY SOMEWHERE must already have
done something right.
... What pictures do you have, of what is going on in Rio?
>
>> There are 500 Native American tribes and about 500 communities of people,
>> all pretty much repudiating the American Way of Technocracy, Human
Resource
>> Management and community management.
>
>casinos and welfare, the indian way  I have been in and around the aim
movement
>for years and see only a pale version of the ghost way and a resurgence in
the
>capitalist over spiritual as the money mounts from the sin trades.

... "Sin" is another subject.
...  Talk about sin at Globalization_of_addictions@egroups.com.

>
>> There are many thousands more people camped out in trailer parks and RV
>> time-shares who have no other place to go.
>>
>> There are thousands of individuals rooming in houses in cities who have
to
>> put up with whatever they have to put up with, just to have a roof over
>> their heads.
>
>these two are the backbone of upward mobility in america. the struggle to
rise
>above our status creates the impetus for self betterment. life is hard. if
i
>want out, individually, i climb out.

... Yeah, but.  Yeah, but . . . Look at the numbers of people who commit
suicide in this
country, year after year, because they don't have any or enough LINKS to
people.
... Trailer parks contain only disenfranchised people who are at the mercy
of very
arbitrary and capricious owners [I know this from personal experience.]
Living in a
room in someone else's house is a form of Hell also, for different reasons.
... No, we have not yet achieved a rational form of housing which is modest
and very
low cost; yet we have the technology to do so.
>
>> There are thousands of kids and teenagers who are being
abused--physically,
>> mentally, sexually--by their over-wrought and over-worked families who
want
>> a way to get out and have no place to go.
>
>sad realities of our animal existance cross all class lines and are not
>amenable to mass fixes. crisis in disparate cases are  farely well covered
if
>the case is known. we can't fix what we can't see.

... "Out of sight, out of mind," is the doctrine of the 80s and 90s
well-to-do.
... But that is not the reality that the rest of us must live with.
... There is no law that says people cannot meet, brainstorm and come up
with
housing solutions that have not existed in the past--irrespective of
profiteering.
>
>Church monasteries and convents--although they used to serve as
>> way-stations, missions and temporary housing--no longer serve that
purpose.
>> They are also bureaucratized, impersonalized and regimented.
>>
>the above were always regimented and dispised by their clients. charity is
hard
>to accept for clear individuals. history

... Otherwise, they would also have been overrun. Actually, the fact they
have very
simple ways and means is sufficient to drive most people off.
... But now even people who are willing to accept their disciplines are
turned away.
>
>>
>> Rooming houses that actually serve the needs of transient people no
longer
>> exist the way they did when I was young, in the 60s. I shared a room with
>> another woman, and I got two good meals a day downstairs, and it cost
$250 a
>> month to live there.  No longer.
>>
>rooming houses in the city are gone. in the suburbs however the deal still
>lives , and sharing rooms in apartments,meaning two people or more to a
room is
>still the way many immigrants make it. the last place i had in cambridge
went
>from 800 to 16 hundred in three months. when i left it was rented to 10
central
>americans (three bedrooms) which meant 160 a month per,which was less than
i
>was paying per renter.

... Again, this type of communal living has no privacy and no permanence
because
anybody who pisses off the landlord gets everybody thrown out.
>
>>
>> The housing that IS being built is entirely too large and too elaborate
and
>> expensive for any of the constituencies mentioned above.  As you are well
>> aware, a person ONLY NEEDS 200 square (2-10x10 rooms) feet plus
sanitation
>> facilities, in order to get by.  A person needs a personal room for
restful
>> sleeping and a companion-room for confronting other issues and people.
You
>> can't rest in the middle of clutter, and you can't do business in your
>> bedroom. So, there's the boundary of NEED.
>
>need versus convienence. I need a secure space to get out of the weather.A
box
>3x6x3 expanding three ft up as sleeping /hiding from weather space is what
i
>need if i refuse the shelter available.

... What you describe sounds as if it could be constructed and assembled as
modules
out of already-foam-insulated waterproof composite; folded into a stack 3x2
feet by
its thickness, weighing less than 50 pounds, sitting on a tricycle-wheel
shaft for easy
mobility. Shouldn't cost $50.
>
>> NOTHING in the new housing market approaches that simple need. Where I
live
>> in Washington, D.C., and its outlying suburbs, the only housing that is
>> being built is crackerbox-type row houses starting at $125,000-$300,000
and
>> homes from $300,000-up.
>
>you get what you pay for

... No, for THAT PRICE, what you get is immobilized.
>
>>
>> Housing that is built for seniors follows a model of institutional
>> living--rows of bedrooms and separated baths, with only superficial
>> activities for people to engage in--literally, games--but no common
interest
>> in the matters of eating, maintaining the house, laundry, repairs or
>> enabling each other. Such housing isolates and encapsulates the
residents,
>> just as development housing isolates and encapsulates residents in the
>> suburbs.
>>
>if the people are rushing to sign up for it it's what they want. we are
rapidly
>populating too few areas of our country because people want to live where
they
>want  to live. 75% of the population wants to live by the major bodies of
>water. thus hi-rise to fit em in. this is the market economy in action

... You said it. So, we also need a long-term planning function to specify
which
lands are to be saved for wildlife, which for human habitation. And what
doesn't
make sense is that the humans should take whatever they happen to prefer--
which is how money WORKS.

>> No, your housing unit idea is fresh and it is important.
>>
>> The reason I brought up old used campers is that they already are about
the
>> right size--8 feet wide and usually about 20 feet long. Once the engines
>> give out, they can be refurbished and "rolled into place" wherever a
>> camper-condo can be established.
>>
>this i agree with tho the same problem exists. folks don't want to live in
iowa
>or north dakota.even the indians who have a free housing policy leave for
the
>cities. they could grow their own food,pay no taxes/rent, just live the
country
>life,they opt for money over freedom. in canada the plan was proposed to
open a
>defunct military base for the homeless.it was derided by one and all in our
hpn
>group. i said what kind of deal can we get. can we become a community with
self
>rule as well as benefits until we can thrive? since when can beggars be
>choosers ? strike a deal or make em pay. coffins on the whitehouse lawn? my
>boxes on the capitol steps?

... As we both realize, some people want--always--to be transient. There
needs
to be shelter for them. Some people want--always--to be adaptable. There
needs
to be ways for them to put aside one "house" and get mobile, and then to
stop
when they find a new place they like and get a new "house" there. Some
people
want--always--to be immobilized [usually, with THEIR STUFF]. These people
need
to be made accountable for how they deal with "stuff," so that it doesn't
become
an issue for other people.  After all, "stuff" is not the same as Living
Life.
... As George Carlin so aptly put it, "stuff" is the problem. Housing would
be much
easier to resolve if people didn't acquire so much "stuff" which they feel
is
essential.

>> A camper-condo would be a community [with commonsense rules] that locates
>> itself on Land Trusts, in camping facilities, on former military-bases,
in
>> intentional Communities, on Indian Reservations, for the purpose of
building
>> up those as permanent communities.
>> Camper-condos, the refurb operations that permit them to establish
>> themselves, and all the tertiary enterprises that will keep them
>> humming--credit union, food and baby-sitting cooperatives, pawn shop,
>> consignment shop, surplus store, convenience store, laundromat and
>> professional skills cooperative--can be the Way--
>
>this is my concept well put

... Oh really?  Wow!!!!
>
>>
>> people out of the mainstream can live in a measure of dignity.
>
>these folk are often the only ones living with dignity. the mainstream is
>morally corrupt

.... Yes, they just want to get more "stuff"!
>
>> But we have to have some land set aside--
>>
>> We have to create the condominium documents--
>>
>> We have to get "mainstream America" to give us their discards--
>>
>
>this is lawyer stuff and property rights
... There ARE NO property rights in the U.S. Everybody has a mortgage!
It's the BANKS who OWN ALL THE PROPERTY!

 but america already gives it's
>castoffs. any american can dumpster dive

... Then let's go "dumpster diving" together, and put together a community
of
essentials out of the crap that other people throw away!


>> Then we have to go out and find the people with the skills who want to
put
>> it all together--much as we would have to recruit and hire people for a
new
>> business enterprise.
>>
>> I wonder--because of the problem people have with Acquiring Stuff--how
you
>> can frame, describe and detail your units so that people will feel free
>> enough to stop gathering, stop storing, stop carrying stuff around?
STUFF
>> is the real problem of housing, because it takes up so much space.  STUFF
is
>> what makes housing expensive.
>>
>
>this once again goes to whom these units are for. individuals with a streak
of
>self sufficiency would use them. they are not general homeless population
fare.
... Possibly true.

>
>>
>> Comments?
>>
>
>i really find that this is not so much a panacaea as a device to catch the
>attention of the general populace as to the possibilities in the
lifestyles of
>american culture. indians had andf some still have tents and hogans. the
long
>house of the irriquois has disappeared unless you go to upstate new
york.domes
>at the hogfarm in taos .yurts in earth peoples park (now defunct) of
northeast
>kingdom, vermont. we have the ideas,we need the freedom.

...You SAID IT, BROTHER!
>
>>
>> -----Original Message-----
>> From: unclescam <unclescam@buskers.org>
>> To: emily cragg <mecragg@erols.com>
>> Date: Sunday, December 05, 1999 8:28 PM
>> Subject: Re: Fw: Your housing units
>>
>> >ok    the population these boxes (we need a good name) are to serve is
not
>> >millions.while we say there is an overflow in our shelters that overflow
is
>> >generally the hardcore iconoclast dead set against following a regimen,
or
>> able
>> >to, obey the strictures
>> >of a shelter. these folk are already living the life, with substandard
>> >materials, and no form of security of belongings. these folks already
use
>> >cardboard boxes......would you set up parkinglots or playing fields or
>> central
>> >park or would you want them to have a bit more space apart,each to their
>> own
>> >like ?  encampments on the government lawns. coffins lined up for the
>> media.
>> >make two or three for the rhode island folk on the governors lawn  . who
>> has
>> >the wood. they're living in tents wood is warmer.
>> >i.m gonna send this it is freely associated. will be back to it .
>> >emily cragg wrote:
>> >
>> >> I acknowledge everything you are saying.
>> >>
>> >> Let's work the legal angle from another direction. Let's say we can
get
>> our
>> >> trailers 1) refurbished for nothing and 2) exempted from being
"vehicles"
>> by
>> >> parking them in certain "approved" places. Trailer parks are unholy
>> >> dumps--all scrunched together. Let's junk that and redesign the whole
>> >> "trailer park" idea. If we have a million homeless, we have a million
>> >> American refugees, don't we?
>> >>
>> >> We need places for our "refugees" that they can participate in.
>> >>
>> >> How does the Military create camps for refugees out of nothing?  What
do
>> >> they know that we could use as a proposal to deal with homelessness,
as a
>> >> way of ending it forever? To end homelessness as a social reality
>> forever,
>> >> we have to provide a short-term alternative cheap housing--not fun or
>> >> luxurious or prestigous--merely safe, warm and clean until "getting on
>> one's
>> >> feet" becomes possible.
>> >>
>> >> What I sense is that you like the mobile way of life; but that is not
>> >> acceptable or even possible for many who are homeless. Most people
want
>> to
>> >> plant themselve somewhere where they can relate to their surroundings
in
>> a
>> >> predictable and positive way.
>> >>
>> >> Please keep talking. Let's get all your feelings and ideas out in the
>> open.
>> >>
>> >> Emily
>> >>
>> >> -----Original Message-----
>> >> From: unclescam <unclescam@buskers.org>
>> >> To: emily cragg <mecragg@erols.com>
>> >> Date: Sunday, December 05, 1999 7:12 PM
>> >> Subject: Re: Fw: Your housing units
>> >>
>> >> >to use a structure already known as a vehicle raises legal problems.
>> >> campers
>> >> >and trailers are useless as they need to be on the road and
liscensed,
>> or
>> >> in
>> >> >trailer parks. what we need is a utility box on wheels big enough to
>> sleep
>> >> in.
>> >> >one that rolls around so as to be secure but not so unwieldy that it
>> can't
>> >> be
>> >> >handled on city sidewalks or block them. probably a better
demonstration
>> >> >vehicle than a real living box.  last year i lived out of a 7x7x7 box
in
>> >> alston
>> >> >ma. crude but acceptable to me.
>> >> >
>> >> >emily cragg wrote:
>> >> >
>> >> >> What you are describing is a "camper." There are hundreds of
>> >> "campgrounds"
>> >> >> full of "campers" and "trailers"--people who have no place else to
do.
>> >> There
>> >> >> is also a secondary market in old, worn out campers and
>> >> >> trailers--refurbished by groups such as veterans and Goodwill.
>> >> >>
>> >> >> I do believe you are on to something.
>> >> >>
>> >> >> Let's keep it coming.
>> >> >>
>> >> >> chaiyah ["lightswitch"]
>> >> >> -----Original Message-----
>> >> >> From: unclescam <unclescam@buskers.org>
>> >> >> To: William Tinker <wtinker@fcgnetworks.net>; HPN
<hpn@aspin.asu.edu>
>> >> >> Date: Sunday, December 05, 1999 3:25 PM
>> >> >> Subject: Re: Fw: Your housing units
>> >> >>
>> >> >> a bit on small housing. in massachusetts,,, any structure under 100
sq
>> ft
>> >> in
>> >> >> not taxed. the land it sits on is.
>> >> >> it seems to me that wood or paper would be preferable to plastic.
this
>> >> idea
>> >> >> of
>> >> >> small space shelter has been floated for years. some suggestion of
>> boxes
>> >> on
>> >> >> wheels so that shopping carts could be dispensed with along with
the
>> >> charge
>> >> >> of
>> >> >> theft, was layed out a month ago. one could start a homeless
industry
>> >> >> building
>> >> >> these with the homeless gaing empowerment thru making their own
>> coffin.
>> >> my
>> >> >> friend george has a plan for a solar powered unit to heat and
electrfy
>> >> each
>> >> >> unit. a portable home with storage. i could use one myself.
lovyall
>> scam
>> >> >>
>> >> >> William Tinker wrote:
>> >> >>
>> >> >> > Ch@nce,Tom,and Graeme,
>> >> >> >  I got this answer back from the micro houses......which are in
>> reality
>> >> >> are
>> >> >> > lawn storage units,I am not sure if they are worth investigating
>> >> further
>> >> >> or
>> >> >> > not I will let the more knowledgeable decide..
>> >> >> >  "A Brother In Strife And In Peace'  Bill
>> >> >> >
>> >> >> > ----- Original Message -----
>> >> >> > From: Ella Delaney <edelaney@numen.net>
>> >> >> > To: William Tinker <wtinker@fcgnetworks.net>;
<edelaney@numen.net>
>> >> >> > Cc: <nhhomeless@egroups.com>
>> >> >> > Sent: Sunday, December 05, 1999 1:51 PM
>> >> >> > Subject: Re: Your housing units
>> >> >> >
>> >> >> > > Thank you for your interest in Numen Associates' micro housing.
>> While
>> >> we
>> >> >> > > acknowledge the danger in implementing "solutions" to
homelessness
>> >> that
>> >> >> > > would normalize such shelter systems, we also feel that
widespread
>> >> >> > > homelessness such as exists in San Francisco & other cities in
the
>> >> >> United
>> >> >> > > States constitutes an unacknowledged state of emergency and,
like
>> >> >> natural
>> >> >> > > disasters such as earthquakes, should be addressed with
emergency
>> >> >> > measures.
>> >> >> > > Our primary aim is to raise the level of awareness regarding
these
>> >> >> > > emergency circumstances.
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > We acknowledge the irony embodied in our daily reality; that's
>> what
>> >> you
>> >> >> > see
>> >> >> > > reflected in the unit's illustration.
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > Please tell us more about your interest in Numen Associates'
micro
>> >> >> housing
>> >> >> > > solutions so that we can further tailor our response to your
>> query.
>> >> Are
>> >> >> > you
>> >> >> > > employed by a social service agency? Are you yourself homeless?
Or
>> >> are
>> >> >> you
>> >> >> > > one of the millions of working people who feels helpless
>> witnessing
>> >> the
>> >> >> > > continuing suffering? Please read our press release (below) if
you
>> >> have
>> >> >> > not
>> >> >> > > already done so.
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > Ella Delaney, communications agent
>> >> >> > > Numen Associates
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > >
>> *******************************************************************
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > Numen Associates® presents a revolutionary concept in
>> microhousing.
>> >> The
>> >> >> > > Human Storage Unit* provides accommodations and stable
communities
>> in
>> >> >> > > modular groupings for the homeless.
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > (SAN FRANCISCO, CA)- Homelessness has reached epidemic
proportions
>> in
>> >> >> San
>> >> >> > > Francisco. The city's homeless population has more than doubled
in
>> >> the
>> >> >> > last
>> >> >> > > 10 years to over 16,000! Although only the 13th largest city in
>> the
>> >> >> United
>> >> >> > > States, San Francisco now has the 3rd largest homeless
population
>> >> after
>> >> >> > New
>> >> >> > > York City & Los Angeles.
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > The National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty in Washington
DC
>> >> >> > recently
>> >> >> > > named San Francisco one of five cities especially tough on the
>> >> homeless.
>> >> >> > > According to San Francisco's Coalition on Homelessness, General
>> >> >> Assistance
>> >> >> > > benefits are inadequate to secure even the city's cheapest
>> housing.
>> >> >> While
>> >> >> > > the average vacant single room (SRO) without a kitchen or bath
>> rents
>> >> for
>> >> >> > > $450 per month, general assistance for single adults was
reduced
>> from
>> >> >> $355
>> >> >> > > per month to $287 per month in 1998. If recipients meet strict
>> >> >> eligibility
>> >> >> > > requirements, three other county assistance programs could
boost
>> that
>> >> >> > > amount to a total of $355- still not enough to rent a room.
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > 1999 polls have shown homelessness to be the number one mayoral
>> >> election
>> >> >> > > issue, yet city policymakers demonstrate a shocking level of
>> >> ignorance
>> >> >> > > about the harsh realities of street life. Mayor Willie Brown's
>> press
>> >> >> > > secretary, Kandace Bender, recently stated that, "The mayor's
>> >> philosophy
>> >> >> > is
>> >> >> > > to get people off the streets, and that's not always possible
if
>> you
>> >> >> make
>> >> >> > > it more comfortable for them on the streets." Former SF Health
&
>> >> Human
>> >> >> > > Services director Earl Rynerson echoed that sentiment, stating,
>> "When
>> >> >> its
>> >> >> > > comfortable for them out there on the streets, they stay out
>> there."
>> >> >> > > Seeking to assuage uncomfortable voters, politicians dabble in
>> >> >> > pre-election
>> >> >> > > 'aesthetic cleansing' like the anti-camping ordinances in city
>> parks
>> >> and
>> >> >> > > the recent shopping cart retrieval campaign proposed by Mayor
>> Brown.
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > Let's face it- big government has failed miserably and most
major
>> >> >> > > corporations have only one social agenda- to make as much money
as
>> >> >> > > possible. Only an entrepreneurial startup like Numen Associates
is
>> >> >> > uniquely
>> >> >> > > positioned to provide a hybrid solution for the problem of
>> >> homelessness.
>> >> >> > > Company founder and Conceptual Officer Eugene J. Marsh
explains,
>> "The
>> >> >> > Human
>> >> >> > > Storage Unit is a revolutionary concept in microhousing for the
>> >> >> homeless.
>> >> >> > > We envision them being grouped as 'neighborhood clusters,' in
>> parks,
>> >> >> > > beneath highway overpasses and other locations where the
homeless
>> >> >> already
>> >> >> > > live." He elaborates further, "Each unit is prefabricated from
>> >> durable
>> >> >> > > polyresin and is relatively inexpensive. It measures 92 cubic
>> feet,
>> >> is
>> >> >> > easy
>> >> >> > > to assemble and can be provided with its own, matching
mailbox."
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > Ella Delaney, Numen Associates' Communications Agent, states
that
>> >> their
>> >> >> > > video infomercial (soon available through their website)
>> demonstrates
>> >> >> how
>> >> >> > > the unit can be easily cleaned and maintained by a municipal or
>> >> private
>> >> >> > > agency. She adds, "The occupants could achieve personal and
>> material
>> >> >> > > security by forming stable communities. These units would
provide
>> >> basic
>> >> >> > > accommodations for the urban homeless in comparison to the
>> doorways
>> >> and
>> >> >> > > makeshift cardboard structures where they now spend the night."
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > > As countless homeless people live and sleep on the sidewalks
>> >> surrounding
>> >> >> > > City Hall, lawyers, judges and government officials pass them
by,
>> >> >> turning
>> >> >> > a
>> >> >> > > blind eye to the painful spectacle. The average citizen
consumer
>> is
>> >> >> > > confused by the apparent dichotomy betweem a booming local
economy
>> >> and
>> >> >> the
>> >> >> > > blight of chronic poverty that confronts them daily. In fact,
>> >> spending
>> >> >> > cuts
>> >> >> > > and vertiginous shifts in the market economy will continue to
>> force
>> >> >> > > marginal populations, often veterans and the mentally ill, onto
>> the
>> >> >> > > streets. Meanwhile relatively inexpensive measures remain
>> overlooked!
>> >> >> > Numen
>> >> >> > > Associates microhousing solution converts the failures of
>> prevailing
>> >> >> > social
>> >> >> > > policy into a success story for those who remain unwilling or
>> unable
>> >> to
>> >> >> be
>> >> >> > > normalized by institutional systems.
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> > >
>> >> >> >
>> >> >>
>> >>
>>
____________________________________________________________________________
>> >> >> > > Except for the historical information contained herein, this
press
>> >> >> release
>> >> >> > > contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and
>> >> uncertainties
>> >> >> > > which could cause Numen Associates' actual results to differ
>> >> materially
>> >> >> > > from those discussed here, including Numen Associates' reliance
on
>> >> the
>> >> >> > > efforts of its collaborative partners, the risk that Numen
>> >> Associates'
>> >> >> > > collaborations will not be successful, the risk that clinical
>> trials
>> >> >> will
>> >> >> > > not proceed as anticipated or may not be successful, the risk
of
>> >> Numen
>> >> >> > > Associates' early stage of development, the risk that Numen
>> >> Associates
>> >> >> > will
>> >> >> > > not be successful in entering into new collaborations,
competition
>> >> and
>> >> >> > > marketing risk, the risk of unexpected difficulties and delays
in
>> the
>> >> >> > > development of new technologies and in expanding its
manufacturing
>> >> >> > > capabilities, and general economic conditions that may affect
>> Numen
>> >> >> > > Associates' actual results and developments. Additional factors
>> that
>> >> >> could
>> >> >> > > cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not
>> limited
>> >> to,
>> >> >> > > those discussed in the sections entitled ``What Factors Could
>> Cause
>> >> Our
>> >> >> > > Results to Differ Significantly from Those You Might Expect?''
and
>> >> >> > > ``Additional Risk Factors'' in the company's reports.